Sightless Success: A Portrait of a Visually Impaired Music Entrepreneur


This qualitative study explores the experiences of visually impaired music entrepreneurs in navigating the post-COVID multimodal creative economy. Through in-depth interviews with Matthew Weihmuller, a prominent visually impaired saxophonist and educator, the study uncovers the unique challenges, advantages, strategies, and resources utilized by visually impaired entrepreneurs in sustaining their music businesses. Findings reveal the pivotal role of accessibility technology, innovative adaptation strategies, and collaborative networks in overcoming barriers and achieving sustainability in the music industry. Implications for educators, colleagues, and the broader music community underscore the importance of fostering inclusivity, representation, and collaboration to support the success of visually impaired entrepreneurs in the music entrepreneurship landscape.


Keywords: Visually impaired, music entrepreneurship, post-COVID, multimodal creative economy, accessibility technology, adaptation strategies

Introduction, Context, and Need

The discussion surrounding viability in music entrepreneurial planning, practice, and preparation has gained considerable attention within research, curricula, and the music industry professions. In today’s post-COVID multimodal creative economy, it is imperative for music entrepreneurs to explore the integration of multimedia resources with music products and services to enhance target-marketing efforts towards online consumers. This approach not only strengthens company sustainability but also garners larger consumer interest and revenue.1 With the standardization of music digitization for both content creation and consumption, strategic promotion of visual music media products can significantly enhance consumer retention, online engagement, and search engine optimization for music enterprises.2 While aspiring music entrepreneurs are increasingly proficient in independently creating and releasing music marketing advertisements through aural and visual modalities, it is essential to include visually impaired music entrepreneurs in discussions concerning navigating their practices within a music industry that relies predominantly on both aural and visual stimuli.3

New music modalities are predominantly consumed as online synchronous and asynchronous micro-content and macro-content on various social media platforms such as TikTok, Facebook, and Instagram, as well as public video archiving sites like YouTube and video communication forums such as Zoom, Teams, and Messenger. In the era of the post-COVID multimodal creative economy, the online music content creator industry has emerged as a legitimate profession requiring entrepreneurs to possess visual-music media production capabilities.4 Data indicates that the online content creator industry has witnessed significant growth, generating billions of dollars more each year compared to the pre-COVID era.5 Online music content creators who produce visual music media have a higher probability of achieving five-figure and six-figure annual incomes compared to freelance musicians who do not prioritize this aspect of music production and marketing.6 The adage “seeing is believing” aptly describes how employers and consumers assess their level of support for music entrepreneurs’ businesses based on the visual evidence of their products and services.7 The accessibility of becoming a professional music video content creator has expanded, even among non-expert musicians with minimal training, leading to a new demographic of compensated musicians and intensifying competition, particularly for visually impaired music entrepreneurs.8 Scholars and practitioners have observed a continual growth of entrepreneurial opportunities for visual music content creators, driven by factors such as growing independence from corporations, opportunities to create visual musical products as scalable marketing tools, and multimodal functionality enabling the repurposing of visual music media to leverage and scale company goals more effectively.9 Within academic sectors, both secondary schools and universities strive to accommodate exceptional students, including those who are visually impaired. As the consumption and practice trends of the evolving music industry increasingly normalize visual stimuli in music products and services, it becomes imperative to expand and adapt pedagogical frameworks within academic music entrepreneurship programs to cater to the needs of aspiring visually impaired music entrepreneurs. Interestingly, there appears to be a dearth of research addressing the preparation of visually impaired arts entrepreneurs, particularly music students, for careers in today’s digitally and visually adept workforce. National standards for music education practice and performance seem to have been established under the assumption that students possess the sense of sight necessary to engage and excel in their respective music careers.10 Given the growing emphasis on access and opportunity as standardized pillars of many academic aims, it would be meaningful for academic institutions to enhance their efforts in preparing visually impaired students aspiring to pursue careers in the arts, especially in music.11 Existing literature on assisting visually impaired professionals offers helpful but general implications primarily targeted towards broader audiences, such as non-arts businesses and music learners.

Review of Literature & Resources

Zayniddinov (2020) conducted a survey across numerous academic institutions in the United States and noted a significant disparity between the availability of music schools catering to visually impaired children and adults, compared to opportunities for visually impaired music students within major colleges, universities, and conservatories. While dedicated schools primarily focus on performance and basic production, they often lack classes dedicated to music entrepreneurship, especially at the post-secondary level, leaving visually impaired students ill-prepared for careers as music entrepreneurs.12

Abodunrin and Komolafe (2019) discussed the potential benefits of implementing entrepreneurship as a tool for the economic development of Nigerian women with visual impairments. While the study highlighted the need for more women entrepreneurs in Nigeria, particularly among visually impaired populations, it fell short in providing specific methods, models, and tactics for achieving this goal. The study’s recommendations primarily urged the Nigerian government to offer financial assistance through programs, grants, and loans, without delving into detailed strategies for implementation.13

Gangi’s (2021) study illustrated the successful partnership between Austin Classical Guitar and the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, wherein the curriculum was adapted to accommodate blind and visually impaired students. This initiative led to the conversion of guitar resources to braille, facilitating lifelong learning pathways for visually impaired individuals. Similarly, offers self-study solo courses with braille and audio resources tailored for visually impaired and blind guitarists.14

Pino and Viladot (2019) proposed a blueprint for equipping teachers and classrooms to include visually impaired students, particularly in music education, emphasizing the utilization of software and hardware. However, the focus of the article primarily centered on training teachers to navigate the challenges of educating visually impaired students, rather than addressing the specific needs of visually impaired music entrepreneurs.15

In summary, the existing literature addresses a) disparities in education and music education opportunities for visually impaired students across different learning levels; b) challenges faced by visually impaired Nigerian women aspiring to be business and entrepreneurial professionals; c) adaptations of classical guitar instruction for blind and visually impaired students; and d) pedagogically appropriate methods and technologies for training teachers to educate visually impaired music students. However, there remains a notable gap in addressing best pedagogical and pragmatic methods for enhancing the professional prospects of visually impaired music entrepreneurs. Thus, there is an urgent need for further studies investigating methods to support visually impaired music entrepreneurs in adapting to an increasingly visually oriented music industry influenced by technological advancements and the trends of music consumption stemming from the post-COVID multimodal creative economy.

Visually Impaired Innovators and Innovations

Visually impaired music entrepreneurs have made significant contributions to artistic innovations across various genres of the music industry. Among the most notable figures are musicians who have achieved Grammy® Awards, Billboard Chart-topping status, Lifetime Achievement awards, and are regarded as trailblazers for other visually impaired artists. This esteemed group includes José Feliciano, Stevie Wonder, Ray Charles, Diane Schuur, Andrea Bocelli, Art Tatum, Clarence Carter, Ginny Owens, Marcus Roberts, and Willie McTell, among others.

Stevie Wonder’s collaboration with Ray Kurzweil resulted in the creation of the Kurzweil 250, widely recognized as the first computerized instrument capable of realistically mimicking the grand piano and other orchestral instruments. Byron Harden, functionally blind since age seven, founded “I See Music,” a vocational school initially established to teach audio production to visually impaired students. In the UK, Matthew Wadsworth, a Lutenist, devised a Braille-based tablature for the Lute, enabling individuals with visual impairments to play the instrument. South Korean pianist Yeaji Kim pioneered a style of 3D notation that facilitates both visually impaired and sighted performers in reading sheet music.

While challenges persist, visually impaired students pursuing music studies or careers as composers or producers can access assistance through various avenues. Companies like Dancing Dots offer dedicated software tailored to the needs of visually impaired musicians. Their products, including GOODFEEL Braille Music Translator, Lime music notation editing software, Duxbury Braille translator, and SharpEye Music Reader, facilitate the translation of standard notation to Braille and the conversion of printed music into digital formats. Lime Lighter, a music reading device for low vision musicians, complements these software solutions and is compatible with screen reader software such as Jaws, developed by Freedom Scientific.

The Authors’ Interest & Research Questions

In the late 1990s, the first author, while a student at Berklee College of Music, commenced a work-study position as a music tutor, where he guided visually impaired students in Berklee’s mandatory theory classes. Subsequently hired by Berklee to teach music software, he became deeply involved in assisting visually impaired students in utilizing the school’s assistive technology, including software from Dancing Dots and Freedom Scientific.

The second author boasts a longstanding career as a music producer for numerous acclaimed music entrepreneurs, including performers, producers, audio engineers, record label executives, and music education enterprise owners, many of whom are visually impaired. Additionally, the second author has extensive experience working with Exceptional Student Education (ESE) students, including those with visual impairments.

With a combined experience spanning well over two decades of working with visually impaired students, coupled with limited research and the availability of current assistive technology, the authors contemplated several crucial aspects:

  1. The extent to which colleges and universities offer specialized technology for visually impaired students in the field of music.
  2. The availability of adequate preparation for visually impaired entrepreneurs in the music field within academic institutions.
  3. The reasons behind the scarcity of assistance for visually impaired music entrepreneurs.
  4. The challenges faced by visually impaired music entrepreneurs in navigating an industry increasingly inclined towards visual music media consumption, amplified by the preferences arising from COVID-19.
  5. The insights and advice that successful visually impaired music entrepreneurs could offer to aspiring entrepreneurs with visual impairments.

These factors guided the researchers in narrowing down the aims of their study, which aimed to explore and provide perspectives and solutions for visually impaired music entrepreneurs to effectively operate, sustain, grow, and leverage their careers both intra/entrepreneurially. Additionally, the study aimed to assist music entrepreneurial educators and visually impaired students in cultivating career readiness, functionality, and competitiveness within an industry shaped by the Post-COVID multimodal creative economy, heavily influenced by visual music media consumption.

Research Questions

The authors’ six research questions are:

  1. What are the challenges faced by visually impaired music entrepreneurs in navigating the post-COVID multimodal creative economy, and how do they address these challenges?
  2. What advantages do visually impaired music entrepreneurs experience in the post-COVID multimodal creative economy?
  3. What resources do visually impaired music entrepreneurs utilize to sustain their businesses?
  4. How do visually impaired music entrepreneurs strategize for sustainability, scalability, and leverage in their ventures?
  5. What recommendations can be offered to educators teaching aspiring music entrepreneurs who are visually impaired?
  6. What guidance can be provided to educators teaching aspiring arts entrepreneurs who are visually impaired?



This study employs a multiple-case qualitative research approach utilizing intensity sampling, a method focused on selecting or seeking out rich or exemplary examples of a phenomenon. Through intensity sampling, researchers can delve deeply into a small number of cases, providing comprehensive insights into the topic under investigation, without necessarily focusing on extreme or deviant cases (Palinkas et al., 2015).16

In this study, the intensity sample consists of professional visually impaired music entrepreneur (N = 1) who met the following criteria:

  • Participant maintains active sole proprietorships as professional musicians within the Post-COVID multimodal creative economy, engaging as a performer, producer, and/or content creator.
  • Participant maintains business partnerships with music manufacturers, sponsors, or entities specializing in assisting visually impaired musicians.
  • Participant actively engages in advocacy efforts through digital media and online platforms, seeking to raise awareness and offer solutions for visually impaired music entrepreneurs.
  • Participant maintains a significant presence within their respective online music communities and employ strategies to create and integrate visual music media content to enhance and expand their businesses.
  • Participant is actively involved as music educators in intrapreneurial role(s) within their respective institutions.
  • Participant possesses strong technological and music technological skills.
  • Participant’s musical products and services exhibit a diverse range of styles, genres, and modalities.

Participant for the Case Study

Matthew Weihmuller is a professional saxophonist, educator, performer, career consultant, and band leader with a diverse range of experience. Based in Tampa Bay, Florida, Matthew holds a position as a jazz instructor at the Straz Center’s Patel Conservatory and is also involved as a music educator and researcher for Arts4Life. Academically, Matthew earned both a bachelor’s and master’s degree in music performance from a prestigious tier one research university.

Data Collection, Analysis, & Procedure

The researchers employed a triangulated data collection technique, which included structured interviews lasting 1 hour with the music entrepreneur. This interview were conducted via recorded phone calls, and participants were also given a questionnaire to complete separately. The questionnaire consisted of the following questions:

  1. What are the challenges you face as a visually impaired music entrepreneur in a post-COVID multimodal creative economy? How do you overcome those obstacles?
  2. What advantages do you experience as a visually impaired music entrepreneur in a post-COVID multimodal creative economy?
  3. How do you ensure sustainability, scalability, and/or leverage for your music enterprise?
  4. What resources do you utilize to sustain your music business?
  5. In your experience, what considerations should music entrepreneurs take into account to maximize product/service-to-customer outreach and satisfaction for visually impaired music entrepreneurs?
  6. What suggestions might you offer to educators who teach aspiring music entrepreneurs who are visually impaired?

The researchers transcribed the recorded phone call and compared the responses from the structured interview with the completed questionnaire. This comparison aimed to explore the consistency of the participants’ testimonies and suggestions, and to uncover commonalities and differences between the two music entrepreneurs based on their respective careers as performers and educators. Additionally, inter-observer reliability between the researchers was assessed to ensure the data aligned with the intended aims of uncovering implications for professional practice and pedagogy. Follow-up phone calls were conducted to ensure that participants’ statements were consistent with their intended responses for each question.


Question 1: Challenges Faced and Strategies for Overcoming

Matthew Weihmuller highlighted several challenges he faces as a visually impaired music entrepreneur in a post-COVID multimodal creative economy. Among these challenges, accessibility emerged as a significant issue, particularly with the transition of music products and marketing methods to virtual platforms during the pandemic. Weihmuller noted the difficulty of navigating his career as a music entrepreneur when tasks previously completed in person now rely heavily on platforms like Zoom and other virtual meeting software. Despite these obstacles, he emphasized his proactive approach in overcoming them through the adoption of new technologies and seeking assistance from others. He expressed gratitude for the opportunities technology has provided, allowing him to coordinate exciting projects and collaborate with fellow arts colleagues in innovative ways.

Transportation also posed a challenge for Weihmuller, who often relied on assistance from trusted individuals or ride-sharing platforms like Uber to travel to work destinations. While he acknowledged improvements in the accessibility of ride-sharing technologies over time, pandemic-related restrictions on travel presented additional hurdles, particularly as ride-sharing options were limited to single passengers. In response to canceled in-person contractual agreements due to force majeure clauses triggered by the pandemic, Weihmuller swiftly transitioned his entrepreneurial activities to an online format, focusing on teaching, performing, and consulting exclusively through virtual platforms until it was safe to resume in-person activities.

Furthermore, Weihmuller utilized online synchronous video collaborations, particularly through platforms like Zoom, to maintain connections with other music and arts entrepreneurs and social organizations such as Arts4Life. He viewed these collaborations as opportunities to express the intrinsic value of his mission-based aims and demonstrate empathy for his target clientele during the global hardships brought about by the pandemic. Ultimately, Weihmuller attributed his ability to overcome the challenges of navigating an entrepreneurial career in music within and beyond the COVID era to his determination to provide accessibility for his clients to learn and create virtual music, coupled with a spirit of empathy towards those affected by the pandemic.

Question 2: Identifying the Advantages of Being a Visually Impaired Music Entrepreneur in a Post-COVID Multimodal Creative Economy

Weihmuller observed a noticeable increase in awareness and interest among the general sighted community to learn from and collaborate with individuals with visual impairments. He attributed this shift to a broader societal movement towards diversity and inclusivity. In this new era where diversity, equity, and inclusivity are focal points for many companies, Weihmuller found himself presented with more opportunities both within and outside the workplace to showcase his talents as a disabled artist.

Moreover, Weihmuller noted a growing trend in the academic community towards providing more education on disabilities in the arts, with a specific focus on this aspect of the arts society. This indicates a positive shift towards greater recognition and inclusion of individuals with disabilities within the arts community, reflecting broader societal efforts towards embracing diversity and fostering inclusivity.

Question 3: Accounting for Sustainability, Scalability, and Leverage in the Music Enterprise

As someone with a visual disability, Matthew Weihmuller has consistently relied on improvisation and out-of-the-box thinking to navigate challenges throughout his life. This adaptive approach extends to his career in the arts, where he continuously seeks innovative solutions to level the playing field with his sighted peers and colleagues. In the face of changing work and learning paradigms, Matthew finds himself uniquely equipped to adapt and thrive.

While acknowledging the additional obstacles he encounters in the arts field, Matthew remains confident in his ability to overcome them. A notable example of this is his recent endeavor in directing a group of young performers with disabilities. Utilizing virtual platforms, Matthew coordinates large group performances by distributing individualized parts to performers located across different cities and states. Through collaboration and the use of technology, these individual contributions are seamlessly integrated into cohesive virtual performances.

This innovative approach not only addresses the challenges posed by the pandemic but also opens up new avenues for Matthew to sustain his arts career. Opportunities such as leading lectures on arts access in the visually impaired community have emerged, demonstrating the resilience and adaptability inherent in his approach to entrepreneurship in the arts.

Question 4: Resources for Sustaining the Music Business

Accessibility technology serves as a crucial resource for Matthew Weihmuller in sustaining his music business. He relies on various screen reading programs such as JAWS for Windows, VoiceOver for OS operating systems, and NVDA, an open-source screen reader compatible with music composition programs like Sibelius. Additionally, Weihmuller highlights the significant contribution of Dancing Dots, a company based in Philadelphia, led by Bill McCann, a visually impaired individual who pioneered accessible music technology for the blind and visually impaired community.

Weihmuller specifically mentions a program developed by McCann called GoodFeel, which allows him to utilize an Android tablet equipped with a braille computer keyboard and output screen to read music in braille. GoodFeel, compatible with music files in the form of music XML, interfaces with software like Lime, similar to Sibelius and Finale. This innovative technology enables Weihmuller to access and interpret music in multiple formats, including the option to print music using a braille printer. It’s worth noting that Weihmuller relies on braille for reading and writing, a vital tool that enables him to engage with music in a manner akin to sighted individuals.

Without the invention of braille, Weihmuller would be limited to auditory methods for engaging with music. While some visually impaired artists may prefer this approach, Weihmuller finds braille essential for accessing music in a manner equivalent to his sighted peers.

Question 5: Considerations for Maximizing Product/Service-to-Customer Outreach and Satisfaction

Matthew Weihmuller emphasizes the importance of stepping outside one’s comfort zone as a music entrepreneur, particularly for individuals who are visually impaired. He underscores the necessity of exploring diverse avenues within the arts community to maximize opportunities for outreach and satisfaction, drawing parallels with the practices of sighted entrepreneurs.

Weihmuller advocates for engaging with organizations that support the visually impaired, citing examples such as the National Federation of the Blind (NFB), the American Council for the Blind (ACB), and the Division of Blind Services (DBS) in Florida. Additionally, he highlights the role of organizations like Arts4All Florida in promoting arts accessibility for the disabled community. Weihmuller encourages aspiring entrepreneurs to seek out opportunities regardless of how unconventional they may seem, emphasizing that this responsibility extends to all arts entrepreneurs, regardless of visual ability.

Drawing from his own experiences, Weihmuller recounts his involvement in various aspects of the arts community, including composing music for different contexts, teaching both privately and in public institutions, performing across genres, and sharing his experiences of living with a disability through public speaking engagements. He also acknowledges colleagues who have explored the technological aspects of arts accessibility for the visually impaired, emphasizing the importance of staying informed about current products and technologies, even if not personally utilized.

In summary, Weihmuller advocates for a comprehensive approach to entrepreneurship in the arts, urging individuals to explore all facets of the arts community and be prepared to adapt and diversify their skills to maintain success as entrepreneurs.

Question 6: Suggestions for Educators Teaching Visually Impaired Aspiring Arts Entrepreneurs

Matthew Weihmuller often provides insights to arts educators seeking guidance on instructing visually impaired students. He emphasizes the importance of treating visually impaired students no differently than their sighted counterparts in the learning process. Weihmuller encourages educators to adopt inclusive teaching practices and avoid assumptions about how visually impaired students prefer to learn. While some may favor auditory learning, it’s essential not to overlook the value of other learning methods, such as braille. He stresses the significance of providing visually impaired students with the same instructional opportunities as their peers, ensuring they have access to resources like braille music notation to understand fundamental concepts.

Drawing from his own experiences, Weihmuller highlights the importance of learning alongside sighted colleagues and engaging in traditional music education practices. He emphasizes that while the approach may vary for each student, the ultimate goal remains the same: equipping visually impaired students with the skills and knowledge needed to pursue careers in the arts. In essence, Weihmuller urges educators to recognize the diversity of learning preferences among visually impaired students and tailor their instruction accordingly, while maintaining the same high standards applied to all students pursuing arts entrepreneurship.


Gains of the Study

The study offers invaluable insights into the experiences of visually impaired music entrepreneurs navigating the post-COVID multimodal creative economy. In delving into the challenges and advantages faced by individuals like Matthew Weihmuller, the research sheds light on the resilience and innovative strategies employed by visually impaired entrepreneurs. These findings hold significant implications for both practitioners and educators in the field of music entrepreneurship. Practitioners can hopefully gain a deeper understanding of the obstacles faced by visually impaired entrepreneurs and explore ways to enhance inclusivity and support within the industry. Educators, particularly those teaching aspiring music entrepreneurs who are visually impaired, can adapt their instructional approaches to better meet the needs of their students, ultimately fostering a more inclusive learning environment. Additionally, colleagues of visually impaired music entrepreneurs can glean insights into how to effectively collaborate and support their peers in navigating the challenges of entrepreneurship.

Implications for Visually Impaired Music Entrepreneurs

Visually impaired music entrepreneurs can benefit from the study’s findings by gaining a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities inherent in their entrepreneurial journeys. Through learning from the experiences of individuals like Matthew Weihmuller, visually impaired entrepreneurs can develop innovative strategies to overcome obstacles, leverage available resources, and sustain their businesses in the evolving landscape of the music industry. Moreover, the study underscores the importance of resilience, adaptability, and collaboration in navigating the complexities of entrepreneurship as a visually impaired individual.

Implications for Music Entrepreneurship/Business Teachers

Educators teaching aspiring music entrepreneurs who are visually impaired can utilize the study’s insights to enhance their instructional approaches and support their students more effectively. By understanding the unique challenges faced by visually impaired entrepreneurs and the strategies they employ to overcome them, teachers can tailor their curriculum and teaching methods to better meet the needs of their visually impaired students. This may include providing access to specialized resources, fostering a supportive learning environment, and promoting inclusive practices within the classroom.

Implications for Colleagues of Visually Impaired Music Entrepreneurs

Colleagues of visually impaired music entrepreneurs can play a crucial role in fostering inclusivity and support within the industry. Colleagues can advocate for greater accessibility, representation, and collaboration within their professional networks by gaining insights into the experiences of visually impaired entrepreneurs and the challenges they face. This may involve offering support, resources, and opportunities to visually impaired peers, as well as promoting a culture of inclusivity and diversity within the music industry.

Transferability of the Study

The qualitative nature of the study enhances its transferability, allowing for the exploration of similar experiences among visually impaired entrepreneurs in other creative industries. While the study focused specifically on the music entrepreneurship sector, the insights gleaned from Matthew Weihmuller’s experiences may resonate with visually impaired entrepreneurs in fields such as visual arts, performing arts, and media production. This transferability expands the relevance and applicability of the study’s findings beyond the realm of music entrepreneurship, offering insights that may benefit visually impaired entrepreneurs across various creative domains.

Limitations of the Study

Despite its contributions, the study is not without limitations. It relies on the experiences of a single participant, which may limit the generalizability of the findings to a broader population of visually impaired music entrepreneurs. Additionally, there is the potential for bias in data interpretation, as the researcher’s perspectives and interpretations may influence the analysis of the findings. Moreover, the study’s qualitative nature may preclude the exploration of quantitative data and statistical analyses, limiting the depth of insight into certain aspects of the phenomenon under study.

Suggestions for Future Research

Moving forward, future research endeavors could explore the experiences of visually impaired entrepreneurs in other creative industries, such as visual arts, performing arts, and media production. Through broadening the scope of inquiry, researchers can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the challenges and opportunities faced by visually impaired entrepreneurs across various domains. Additionally, future studies could investigate the effectiveness of specific support mechanisms for visually impaired entrepreneurs, such as mentorship programs, assistive technologies, and advocacy initiatives. Finally, research exploring the intersectionality of disability with other identities in entrepreneurship, such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status, could provide valuable insights into the unique experiences of individuals at the intersections of multiple marginalized identities.


In conclusion, the study’s findings offer valuable insights into the challenges, advantages, and strategies employed by visually impaired music entrepreneurs in navigating the post-COVID multimodal creative economy. The implications of the study extend to practitioners, educators, and colleagues in the music entrepreneurship sector, highlighting the importance of resilience, adaptability, and collaboration in fostering inclusivity and support within the industry. Moreover, the qualitative nature of the study enhances its transferability and applicability to visually impaired entrepreneurs across various creative domains, while also underscoring the need for further research to explore the intersectionality of disability and entrepreneurship.



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